Synergetic features of landscape and complex geographic categories

Keywords: landscape, complex, synergy, space, category, physical geography, economic and social geography


The article examines the historical stages of the formation of scientific ideas about the essence of landscape and complex as the main categories of physical and economic geog- raphy. On the basis of the analysis and generalization of the leading physical-geographers’ and landscape scientists’ views the regularities of evolutionary transition of understanding the content of the landscape and complex categories from the system paradigm to the synergetic paradigm under the influence of humanistic ideas are reflected. It is stated that the landscape in a broad interpretation can be identified with the natural-territorial complex (NTC) of a certain rank, which is understood as a spatial and temporal system of geographic components, interrelated in their location and developing as a whole. The concept of territorial-production complexes (TPC) was substantiated and their typification was proposed. The factors of formation of the additional economic effect of TPC on the basis of territorial and organizational unity and mutually beneficial relations between its elements, as well as providing an integrated use and processing of raw materials and energy were determined. The key features of the concept of socio-geographical complexes (SGC), which were an important geographical tool in the search for the ways ensuring sustainable development of territories, were characterized. It has been established that the SGC concept is fundamentally different from the TPC concept by the vertical nature of the links between different types of economic activity within the system, and, in addition, by attributing to SGC not only material but also spiritual components of human activity. The character and qualities of the synergistic effect of space are analyzed. The synergistic properties of landscapes and complexes are described and their various categories within the concept of spatial synergy arising in those points of space, where the traditional mechanisms of human existence do not exhaust their potential. It is emphasized that based on the use of the synergistic effect mankind in the future will be able to develop effective mechanisms of management and territorial organization, which will open up new directions for the implementation of previously hidden reserves and properties of space.

Author Biographies

Oleksandr V. Hladkyi
State University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine
Tetyana I. Tkachenko
State University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine
Sergii V. Khlopiak
State University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine
Alla M. Klimova
State University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine


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How to Cite
Hladkyi, O., Tkachenko, T., Khlopiak, S., & Klimova, A. (2023). Synergetic features of landscape and complex geographic categories. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 32(1), 44-51.