Ecozones of road landscape-engineer systems: structure, typology, significance


Keywords: road landscape, road landscape-engineering system, ecozone, microecozone, road asymmetry, rational exploitation

Abstract

We analyzed one of the inseparable components of road landscapes of Ukraine, their ecozones. As noted, road landscapes are divided into three categories: road landscape-en- gineer systems (RLESs), road landscape-technogenic systems (RLTSs) and road landscapes proper (RLP). Depending on those categories of road landscapes, there form respective road ecozones. Most distinctively, they become structured and developed over the process of constructing and functioning of RLESs. Therefore, the objectives of our research were the structure, typology, properties and significance of ecozones, mostly those of road landscape-engineer systems for the purpose of their rational exploitation. The objects of the research were RLESs of Ternopil-Khemel- nytskyi-Vinnytsia-Uman-Kropyvnytskyi (M-12) and Kyiv-Odesa (M-5). The research was carried out using the basic principles of landscape science – emergence, cause and effect relationships, history, comparability; methods of analysis, synthesis, modeling, map- ping, GIS-technologies using the software: graphic editors CorelDRAW and Adobe Photoshop, and also open-source network of satellite images Google Earth and other. The notion of road ecozone is considered as a complex ecological structure that is formed and developed over the process of functioning of road landscapes. In more details, we have analyzed the ecozones of modern road landscape-engineer systems M-12 and M-5 which have long been actively operating. Field landscape-science-oriented and ecological studies of ecozones of those RLESs over the period of 2019-2021 made it possible to distinguish and substantiate ten microecozones in their structure. Their specific features are conditioned by specifics of the structure and ecologic condition of previous landscape complexes – the fundamentals of modern RLESs; spatial-temporal specifics of the formation; «linear» spread; dependence on the func- tioning of one type of transport (automobile) and purpose. The features of microecozones are conditioned by land allocated to roads, technical impact, chemical contamination, contamination of soil, aquatic and air contaminations, acoustic and lighting impacts, and esthetic and landscape contaminations. Over the process of further studies, it is possible to distinguish other microecozones, specifically those of biotic and geological impacts, and also uniting certain microecozones into groups. We analyzed one of typical features of road ecozones – their asymmetry. We distinguished and characterized three types of asymmetry of road ecozones – wind-caused, orographic and landscape asymmetries. Not always do their vectors of development coincide. We should note that over the process of functioning of RLTSs and SRLs, there also develop roadside ecozones with respective set of microecozones, though they need additional studies. Further study of ecozones in road landscapes would allow for more thorough planning and forming of their structure, functioning, im- pact on human health and environment. Road landscapes of any category need to be re-constructed into a system of complex purpose – transport, scientific, recreational and esthetic.

Author Biographies

Hryhoriy I. Denysyk
Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Oksana M. Valchuk-Orkusha
Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine,
Viktoriia V. Kanska
Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Volodymyr S. Kanskyi
Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Iryna P. Kozynska
Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Uman, Ukraine

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Published
2023-01-08
How to Cite
Denysyk, H., Valchuk-Orkusha, O., Kanska, V., Kanskyi, V., & Kozynska, I. (2023). Ecozones of road landscape-engineer systems: structure, typology, significance. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 31(4), 591-600. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112255