Natural-geographic objects in the New Testament

Keywords: Bible, New Testament, natural-geographic objects, forms of terrain


The article was written in order to find natural-geographic objects in the New Testament of the Bible. Out of 27 books of the New Testament, only 9 books mention particular names of natural-geographic objects. The highest number and variety is in the Acts of the Apostles, where the author mentions 22 particular objects. Natural-geographic objects are also mentioned in the following books of the New Testament: the Gospel of Matthew (11 objects), the Gospel of Mark (9), the Gospel of John (8), the Gospel of Luke (7), the Epistle to the Galatians (2), the Epistle to Titus (1), the Epistle to the Hebrews (1); and also in the Book of Revelation (1). In the analysis of the texts of the New Testament, we used 4 types of criteria for distinguishing natural-geographic objects, finding 21 individual names, mentioned in the New Testament texts 62 times overall. At the same time, 9 of them are mentioned in the New Testament more than once. Most often, the names of the following objects are mentioned – the Mount of Olives (11 times), the Jordan River (10 times), the Sea of Galilee (Lake Tiberias, Kinneret or Kinnereth) (7 times), the Island of Cyprus (6 times); and Island of Crete, Mount Sinai, Golgotha Hill (Calvary) – 4 times each. Other names occur twice (2 objects) and only once (12 toponyms). The article distinguishes 4 types of natural-geographic objects: 1) aquatic objects; 2) peninsulas, capes, islands; 3) forms of terrain; 4) other. According to number of mentions, quantitative prevalence is seen for aquatic objects, the names of which are presented in the text 22 times, but their variety is lower (6 concrete names in total) compared with the second group – islands, which constitutes 10 concrete names, but the total number of mentions is lower. Most often, the New Testament mentions the Mount of Olives – a height spanning from the north to the south opposite the eastern wall of the Old City of Jerusalem, left of the Kidron Valley and which has three main peaks: Mount Scopus (826 m above sea level); the Mount of Olives (814 m); and the Mount of Temptation (816 m). The article presents 2 tables and 2 maps. The article is relevant both for scientists and readers of the Bible.

Author Biographies

Іvan I. Rovenchak
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine
Oksana R. Perkhach
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine
Andrii I. Babii
Vidnykivsky ZSSO I-II degrees, Vidnyky, Ukraine


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How to Cite
RovenchakІ., Perkhach, O., & Babii, A. (2022). Natural-geographic objects in the New Testament. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 31(2), 390-397.