Method of price formation of amber samples on the basis of gemmological-consumer indicators

Keywords: amber, grading systems, gemmological examination, consumer properties, inclusions, value


Analysis of existing systems for expert grading of amber samples showed that their main disadvantages are, in general, consideration of only standard quality criteria  (weight, colour, inclusions), as well as the lack of evaluation of rare and unique samples. Today in Ukraine there is, in fact, a state monopoly of pricing in the form of an official price-list for raw amber, developed by the State Gemmological Center based on the global market prices. The authors believe that this document does not fully take into account the costs associated with exploration, mining and taxation on the amber market. This deprives the direct users of the amber-bearing areas themselves of the opportunity to determine the criteria for the quality of rough amber and to develop the corresponding price lists. The created method of gemmological-consumer indicators allows for a transparent and understandable formation of the cost of individual amber samples. The value of raw amber determined in this way corresponds to the consumer values of the product, not taking into account processing costs. The sum of consumer properties of amber in items (shape, size, colour, transparency, presence of inclusions, quality of processing – polishing, artistry, etc.) is taken into account, thus satisfying the physiological and aesthetic needs of consumers for the product. To make the consumer properties of amber identifiable, it is necessary to provide the sample with a marketable condition. The criteria for the quality of amber in products have been developed. It is shown that each type of product is characterized by a set of properties that are criteria for product quality. In fact, this is a tool with which one can determine the type of product in the raw material, having previously determined its quality. Comparing the obtained data on the quality of raw materials with the criteria for the quality of products, it is possible to predict the type of product. The operation of the technique is illustrated by examples of two samples of amber containing inclusions. A method for determining the cost of individual samples of amber has been developed, the essence of which is the sequential fixation of gemmological and consumer properties of the sample with their subsequent transformation into an alphanumeric code, the total value of which forms an individual indicator of the sample (a set of individual qualities of the sample), which correlates with its cost. During the expert assessment of rare and unique samples of amber, their scientific, collection, aesthetic and artistic features must additionally be taken into account, establishing the uniqueness of these objects of examination. The method is designed for the symbiosis of individual natural (gemmological) parameters of the sample (size, beauty, presence of inclusion) with a set of consumer properties: shape, size, weight, colour, transparency, fracturing, presence of inclusion, presence of inclusions, polishability, value for science, collection, artistry, etc. The method covers the entire life cycle of amber from raw material to the final product, for which the sample is chosen as optimal in terms of economic, technological and gemmological-consumer indicators.

Author Biographies

Roman S. Kirin
V.K. Mamutov Institute of Economic and Legal Research of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Petro M. Baranov
Dnipropetrovsk Research Forensic Centre of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine
Serhii V. Shevchenko
Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine
Volodymyr M. Korotayev
Dnipropetrovsk Research Forensic Centre of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine


1. Baranov, P.M., Korotaiev V. M., & Kirin R. S., 2021. Naukovo-metodychnyi tvir «Metodyka ekspertnoi otsinky indyvidualnykh zrazkiv burshtynu» [Scientific and methodological work «Methods of expert evaluation of individual samples of amber»] (Svidotstvo pro reiestratsiiu avtorskoho prava na tvir No 108252, 2021, September 28). Derzhavne pidpryiemstvo «Ukrainskyi instytut intelektualnoi vlasnos-ti». Biuleten «Avtorske pravo i sumizhni prava», 67. (In Ukrainian).
2. Baranov, P.M., & Kirin, R.S., 2021. Suchasni problemy normatyvno-pravovoho rehuliuvannia u sferi hemolohichnoi ekspertyzy [Modern problems of legal regulation in the field of gemmological examination]. Koshtovne ta dekoratyvne kaminnia, 2(104). 14– 20. DOI:–2(104)-3 (In Ukrainian).
3. Belichenko, O., & Turova A., 2019. Burshtyn chy imitatsiia? [Amber or imitation?] Koshtovne ta dekoratyvne kaminnia, 2. 9–15. (In Ukrainian).
4. Belichenko, O., Yevdokymov, D., Ladzhun Yu., Tatarintseva K., Haievskyi Yu., & Fuhol L., 2018. Rozroblennia ostatochnoi redaktsii proektu natsionalnoho ND DSTU ХХХХ:201Х «Burshtyn u syrovyni. Zahalni tekhnichni umovy» [Development of the final version of the draft national normative document DSTU ХХХХ: 201Х «Amber in raw materials. General technical conditions»]. Koshtovne ta dekoratyvne kaminnia, 4. 14–16. (In Ukrainian).
5. Besser, L., 2020. Ukraine’s illegal amber mining boom is scarring the earth and making criminal gangs rich. Retrieved from:– 01–21/illegal-amber-mining-creating-environmental- disaster-in-ukraine/11745470 (Last accessed: 30.07.2021)
6. Burmite Amber Grading System. Retrieved from: system (Last accessed: 22.06.2021)
7. Dyshlova, V., 2015. Rynkova vartist vyrobiv z burshtynu [Market value of amber products]. Tovary i rynky, 1. 41–49. (In Ukrainian).
8. Grading Amber. Retrieved from https://amberinternational. net/how-to-grade-amber/ (Last accessed: 22.06.2021)
9. Kirin, R., Baranov, P., & Koziakov, I., 2021.. Gemmological Law of Ukraine: formation Problems and development Prospects. Visnyk Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Geology, 93(2). 6–14. DOI: http://doi. org/10.17721/1728–2713.93.01
10. Kovalevskyi, S.V., & Kovalevskyi S. S., 2019. Burshtynovi kopalyny: istoriia vyvchennia, metody dobuvannia ta vplyv na lisovi ekosystemy [Amber minerals: history of study, extraction methods and impact on forest ecosystems]. Naukovyi visnyk NLTU Ukrainy, 3. Vol. 29. DOI: (In Ukrainian).
11. Law of Ukraine, 2019, December 19 No 402-IX On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning Improvement of the Legislation on Extraction of Amber and Other Minerals, 2020. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy (2020, January 17), 4. Vol. 2, p. 352, article 193. (In Ukrainian).
12. Law of Ukraine, 2019, September 20 No 124-IX On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine in Connection with the Adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Standardization», 2019. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy (2019, October 25), 82. 5, article 2790. (In Ukrainian).
13. Matsui, V.M., Naumenko, U.Z., Aleksandrov, O.L., & Kuzmanenko, H.O., 2019. Problemy burshtynovoho Polissia Ukrainy, poviazani z osvoienniam rozsypiv burshtynu-suktsynitu [Problems of amber region of Polissya of Ukraine related to the development of succinite-amber placers]. Visnyk NAN Ukrainy, 11. 45–52. (In Ukrainian).
14. Myskevych, T., 2020. Stan ta perspektyvy vrehuliuvannia burshtynovoi problemy v Ukraini [Status and prospects of settlement of the amber problem in Ukraine]. Hromadska dumka pro pravotvorennia, 1(186). 21–25. Retrieved from: php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4716: stan-ta-perspektivi-vregulyuvannya-burshtinovoji- problemi-v-ukrajini&catid=8&Itemid=350 (Last accessed: 30.07.2021) (In Ukrainian).
15. Potikha, A., 2016. Problema vydobutku burshtynu: suchasnyi stan ta perspektyvy vyrishennia [The problem of amber mining: the current status and prospects for solution]. Ukraina: podii, fakty, komentari, 5. 36–44. Retrieved from: php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2065: problema-vidobutku-burshtinu&catid=8&Itemid=350 (Last accessed: 30.07.2021) (In Ukrainian).
16. Reznaia fyhurka «Zhaba» yz naturalnoho tselnoho yantaria [Carved figurine «Toad» from natural solid amber]. Retrieved from: carving/natural_amber_carving_toad_n050303/ (Last accessed: 26.07.2021) (In Russian).
17. SBU nakryla kanal kontrabandy: vyluchyly 1,3 tony burshtynu ta 170 kilo «iuvelirky» [The Security Service of Ukraine covered the smuggling channel: 1.3 tons of amber and 170 kilos of «jewelry» were seized], 2021. Retrieved from: rubric-society/3215953-sbu-nakrila-kanal-kontrabandi-vilucili-13-tonni-burstinu-ta-170-kilo-uvelirki.html (Last accessed: 17.07.2021) (In Ukrainian).
18. Selection of important amber for auction – 19th November, 2019: Retrieved from: summersplaceauctions/docs/41159_summers_place_ nov_complete_listing_final_lr/s/157341 (Last accessed: 30.07.2021)
19. Srebrodolskyi, B.Y., 1988. Myr yantaria [World of amber]. Naukova dumka, Kyiv (In Russian).
20. Statuetka yz naturalnoho baltyiskoho yantaria medovoho tsveta «Khotei» [Figurine from natural Baltic amber honey color «Hotei»]. Retrieved from https://amberholl. ru/catalog/souvenirs/natural_amber_carved_souvenir_ n160101/ (Last accessed: 26.07.2021) (In Russian).
21. Svitovi tsiny na burshtyn padaiut [World amber prices are falling], 2019. Retrieved from: fragments/95784/Svitovi_ciny_na_burshtyn_padajut_ Ukrajinski_nelegalni-95784/ (Last accessed: 26.07.2021) (In Ukrainian).
How to Cite
Kirin, R., Baranov, P., Shevchenko, S., & Korotayev, V. (2022). Method of price formation of amber samples on the basis of gemmological-consumer indicators. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 31(2), 321-332.