A’WOT analysis for sustaınability of biodiversity and tourism in Shahdagh Natıonal Park, Azerbaijan


Keywords: national park, biodiversity, tourism, A’WOT analysis, AHP weights

Abstract

Shahdag National Park is the largest protected area in Azerbaijan, as well as in the South Caucasus. The article examines the sustainable development of tourism and biodiversity in the national park and surrounding areas. For this purpose, SWOT analysis was conducted using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools to implement planning. The study identified internal and external environmental factors influencing the national park and presented specific strategies for sustainability. Interviews and surveys were conducted with the management of the national park, as well as visitors, to identify the factors affecting the development of the park. During the analysis of the survey results, factors affecting biodiversity and tourism were taken into account, such as ecological sustainability, economic efficiency, and social responsibility, which are key indicators of sustainable development. Thus, the initial SWOT analysis identified the strengths and weaknesses of the park as internal factors, as well as the opportunities and challenges related to external factors. For each category, 5 factors were selected according to their importance and evaluated in terms of effectiveness by establishing a hierarchy. Based on the assessment, local and global weights of factors were calculated. Mountain ecosystems and the biodiversity of the national park received the highest rating value as an internal factor. Among the external factors, reducing the impact on ecosystems and opportunities to increase tourism revenues received a high score for its effectiveness. For the sustainable development of the research area, factors covering various aspects of society and the environment were comprehensively analyzed, and strategies were proposed that incorporate more scientifically effective and systematic attributes. The results showed that the main condition is to increase the protection regime of ecosystems identified as a priority in the national park and to raise public awareness of environmental issues. In addition, the use of the park’s tourism potential by local communities and the creation of stimulating business opportunities for entrepreneurs can make a positive contribution to sustainable development at the regional level.

Author Biography

Emil A. Jabrayilov
Institute of Geography, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan

References

1. Abdel-Basset, M.; Mohamed, M.; Smarandache, F., 2018. An Extension of Neutrosophic AHP–SWOT Analysis for Strategic Planning and Decision-Making. Symmetry, 10, 116.
2. Akbulak, C.; Cengiz, T., 2013. Determining ecotourism strategies using A’WOT hybrid method: Case study of Troia Historical National Park, Çanakkale, Turkey. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol., 21, 380–388.
3. Arsić, S., Nikolić, D., Mihajlović, I., Fedajev, A., & Živković, Ž., 2018. A new approach within ANP-SWOT framework for prioritization of ecosystem management and case study of National Park Djerdap, Serbia. Ecological Economics, 146, 85–95.
4. Asadov K., Ibrahimov T., 2015, National Parks of Azerbaijan, Baku, 336 p. (In Azerbaijan)
5. Babalola, M.A., 2015. A multi-criteria decision analysis of waste treatment options for food and biodegradable waste management in Japan. Environments, 2(4), 471–488.
6. Bottero, M.; D’Alpaos, C.; Marello, A., 2020. An Application of the A’WOT Analysis for the Management of Cultural Heritage Assets: The Case of the Historical Farmhouses in the Aglié Castle (Turin). Sustainability, 12, 1071
7. Chitsaz, N., & Azarnivand, A., 2017. Water scarcity management in arid regions based on an extended multiple criteria technique. Water Resources Management, 31(1), 233–250.
8. Gallego-Ayala, J., & Juízo, D., 2011. Strategic implementation of integrated water resources management in Mozambique: An A’WOT analysis. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 36(14–15), 1103–1111.
9. García Guerrero, J. E., Rueda López, R., Luque González, A., & Ceular-Villamandos, N., 2021. Indigenous Peoples, Exclusion and Precarious Work: Design of Strategies to Address Poverty in Indigenous and Peasant Populations in Ecuador through the SWOT-AHP Methodology. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2), 570.
10. Geography of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Physical Geography, Volume I, «Europe» publishing house, Bakı 2014, 530 p. (In Azerbaijan)
11. González, R.C.L.; Piñeiro Antelo, M.D.L.Á., 2020. Fishing Tourism as an Opportunity for Sustainable Rural Development – The Case of Galicia, Spain. Land, 9, 437.
12. Grošelj, P., Hodges, D. G., & Stirn, L. Z., 2016. Participatory and multi-criteria analysis for forest (ecosystem) management: A case study of Pohorje, Slovenia. Forest Policy and Economics, 71, 80–86.
13. Hossain, M. I., & Khanal, B. P., 2020. SWOT analysis of forest protected area based sustainable tourism development: A case study in the Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education, 10, 71–89.
14. Ismayilov M., Jabrayilov E., 2019. Protected Areas in Azerbaijan: Landscape-Ecological Diversity and Sustainability. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi., 7(2): 31–42.
15. Kajanus, M., Kangas, J., & Kurttila, M., 2004. The use of value focused thinking and the A’WOT hybrid method in tourism management. Tourism Management, 25(4), 499–506.
16. Kangas, J., & Kangas, A., 2005. Multiple criteria decision support in forest management – the approach, methods applied, and experiences gained. Forest Ecology and Management, 207(1–2), 133–143.
17. Kişi, N., 2019. A strategic approach to sustainable tourism development using the A’WOT hybrid method: A case study of Zonguldak, Turkey. Sustainability, 11(4), 964.
18. Kurttila, M., Pesonen, M., Kangas, J., & Kajanus, M., 2000. Utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in SWOT analysis – a hybrid method and its application to a forest- certification case. Forest Policy and Economics, 1(1), 41–52.
19. Laroche, G., Domon, G., Gélinas, N., Doyon, M., & Olivier, A., 2019. Integrating agroforestry intercropping systems in contrasted agricultural landscapes: a SWOT-AHP analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions. Agroforestry Systems, 93(3), 947–959.
20. Lee, S., Kim, D., Park, S., & Lee, W., 2021. A Study on the Strategic Decision Making Used in the Revitalization of Fishing Village Tourism: Using A’WOT Analysis. Sustainability, 13(13), 7472.
21. Lee, S.; Walsh, P., 2011. SWOT and AHP hybrid model for sport marketing outsourcing using a case of intercollegiate sport. Sport Manag. Rev., 14, 361–369.
22. Mammadov G. Sh., Khalilov M. Y., 2002. Forests of Azerbaijan, Baku, 472 pp. (In Azerbaijan)
23. Miandehi, P. M. & Morteza Y. M., 2013. Assessment of SWOT model on tourism industry in sustainable development of rural areas: Case study on Bandar-E Anzali. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21 (3), 455– 464.
24. Moharramnejad, N., Rahnamai, M. T., & Dorbeiki, M., 2017. Application of a’wot method in strategic management of sustainable tourism in a national park. Environmental Engineering & Management Journal (EEMJ), 16(2).
25. Navarro-Martínez, Z. M., Crespo, C. M., Hernández- Fernández, L., Ferro-Azcona, H., González-Díaz, S. P., & McLaughlin, R. J., 2020. Using SWOT analysis to support biodiversity and sustainable tourism in Caguanes National Park, Cuba. Ocean & Coastal Management, 193, 105188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ocecoaman.2020.105188
26. Panigrahi, J.K., Mohanty, P.K., 2012. Effectiveness of the Indian coastal regulation zones provisions for coastal zone management and its evaluation using SWOT analysis. Ocean Coast Manag. 65, 34–50. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.023.
27. Pesonen, M.; Kurttila, M.; Kangas, J.; Kajanus, M.; Heinonen, P., 2001. Assessing the priorities using A’WOT among resource management strategies at the Finnish Forest and Park Service. For. Sci., 47, 534–541. [Google Scholar]
28. Reihanian, A., Mahmood, N.Z.B., Kahrom, E., Hin, T.W., 2012. Sustainable tourism development strategy by SWOT analysis: boujagh National Park, Iran. Tourism Manag. Perspect. 4, 223–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tmp.2012.08.005
29. Saaty, T.L.; Vargas, L.G., 2001. How to make a decision. In Models, Methods, Concepts & Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process; Springer: Boston, MA, USA, 1–25.
30. Szulecka, J., & Zalazar, E. M., 2017. Forest plantations in Paraguay: Historical developments and a critical diagnosis in a SWOT-AHP framework. Land Use Policy, 60, 384–394.
31. Wang, J.-Y.; Ai, W.-Z.; Hu, B.-H., 2018. The SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures Research of Zhoushan Leisure Fishery under the New Situation. DEStech Trans. Soc. Sci. Educ. Hum. Sci., 75–79.
32. Zavadskas E. K., Turskis Z., 2011. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in economics: an overview Technological and economic development of economy. V. 17, 2. 397–427
Published
2022-08-03
How to Cite
Jabrayilov, E. (2022). A’WOT analysis for sustaınability of biodiversity and tourism in Shahdagh Natıonal Park, Azerbaijan. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 31(2), 302-310. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112228