Assessment of risk to health of the population from soil pollution by heavy metals: theoretical- methodological and ecological aspects


Keywords: heavy metals, Odessa city, urban soils, industrial enterprises, motor transport, risk to public health

Abstract

Existing methodological approaches to assessing the risk to public health from the effects of heavy metal pollution are highlighted. This article considers the influence of emissions from motor transport and industrial enterprises on the level of soil contamination by movable forms of heavy metals in different functional zones of the Odessa city. The degree of technogenic and chemical pollution of urban soils is determined by ecological indicators: concentration coefficient (Kc), hazard coefficient (Kn) and total pollution indicator (Zc). It is established that the indicators of the content of heavy metals in the humus horizons of the soils of Odessa city have a high variability and depend on the degree of industrial and transport impact. It was found that only the soils of the Botanical Garden have an optimal content of heavy metals. It is established that the soils are the most polluted by emissions from road transport in terms of lead (18 TVL), zinc (23 TVL) and cadmium (15 TVL). Accumulation of heavy metals was found in all studied soils of the city. The ecological condition of soils varies from optimal (park zone) to unsatisfactory condition (zone of joint influence of motor transport and industrial enterprises). In terms of total pollution, soils within the impact of road transport and industrial enterprises have a very high (extremely dangerous) level of pollution. The highest values of the total indicator of soil pollution were determined within the impact of road transport (Zc = 758.72) and the combined impact of industrial enterprises and road transport (Zc = 921.6). For the first time, a method was used to assess the risk to the health of the population of the Odessa city from the effects of soil contamination with heavy metals according to the probit regression model. It was determined that the study area of the city mainly has a high and dangerous risk to public health. The conducted researches allowed us to reveal the level of toxicity of the city soils and the level of danger to the health of the population, which will contribute to the implementation of appropriate measures to reduce pollution of the urban environment. The methodology for assessing the health risk from urban soil pollution by heavy metals is a promising approach to quality control of the system «environment – human health» and requires further research.

Author Biographies

Valentyna I. Trigub
Odesa I. I. Mechnykov National University, Odesa, Ukraine
Svitlana V. Domuschy
Odesa I. I. Mechnykov National University, Odesa, Ukraine

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Published
2022-04-05
How to Cite
Trigub, V., & Domuschy, S. (2022). Assessment of risk to health of the population from soil pollution by heavy metals: theoretical- methodological and ecological aspects. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 31(1), 152-162. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112215