The main directions of sustainable socio-economic development of the Caspian littoral areas of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the existing environmental problems

Keywords: sustainable development, socio-economic development, resettlement of the population, industry, investment, ecological problem, Caspian Sea


In Azerbaijan, since the earliest times, the Caspian Sea has contributed to the Received in revised form: 07.10.2021 settlement of population and structure of the economy. The favourable natural geographical conditions of the coasts, exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields and rich tourist-recreational potential favoured the economy of Azerbaijan significantly. However, sea-level fluctuations and environmental damage observed due to exploitation of natural resources served as curbing factor in the development. In modern times, planning of residential areas in the coastal areas, improvement of industrial, agricultural and tourism infrastructure, and successful management of the ecological situation are achievable through effective use of the natural resources and human potential of the Caspian Sea. The coastal region of the Caspian Sea, composed of three zones, is favourable for the development of Azerbaijan’s economy. Theattractiveness of coastal areas is related mainly to preferences of natural conditions and resources and the advantages of their transport- geographical location. As a result, the development level of the economy of the Pre-Caspian region is higher compared to other regions of the country. The region accounts for 88.7 % of the total industrial output in the country. The main part of it, i. e. 95.7 % is shared by the city of Baku. The cause of significant difference in development level between the regions and the capital Baku is associated with the use of oil and gas resources of the Caspian. Thus, offshore oil and gas reserves in the Caspian have played a notable role in the development of coastal areas, and of the country’s whole economy. This has led to inequality in terms of regional development. This factor prompted the need to study the role of the use of resources of the Caspian Sea in the sustainable development of Azerbaijan’s economy. In order to achieve the goal, a comparative analysis of the leading economic branches in the Pre-Caspian regions was carried out from a historical point of view. The obtained information was systematized, and the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development were identified based on statistical-mathematical materials. Aerospace data were used as well.

Author Biographies

Zaur T. Imrani
Institute of Geography named after acad. H. A. Aliyev of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan 
Shakar İ. Mammadova
Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan 
Nasiba N. Hadjiyeva
Ganja State University. Ganja, Azerbaijan 
Oleksandr Y. Vysotskyi
Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro 


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How to Cite
Imrani, Z., Mammadova, S., Hadjiyeva, N., & Vysotskyi, O. (2021). The main directions of sustainable socio-economic development of the Caspian littoral areas of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the existing environmental problems. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 30(4), 652-665.