Tourism potential of Ukraine in the context of geography and current state of German cultural heritage


Keywords: Germans, ethnicity, cultural heritage, tourism, tourism potential, tourism resource, church, cluster analysis

Abstract

The article describes theoretical foundations of the study of tourism potential of the regions of Ukraine in the context of geography and current state of German cultural heritage. The historical preconditions for the formation and development of cultural heritage of German ethnic minority on the territory of the modern Ukraine are studied. Geography of German ethnic minority of the early XX century within the modern territory of Ukraine and geography of ethnic Germans and German cultural heritage in the modern Ukraine are developed. On the basis of a cluster analysis of indicators of the number of preserved objects and the number of former German settlements, groups of regions with high, medium and low potential for the development of ethnic tourism are identified. Odesa, Lviv, Zaporizhzhia, Kyiv and Zhytomyr are the leaders by the number of objects of German cultural heritage among all regions of Ukraine. The group of regions with a medium level of potential for ethnic tourism includes the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Volyn, Kherson, Ivano-Frankivsk, Mykolaiv, Poltava, Chernivtsi, and Khmelnytskyi regions. Seven main types of preserved objects of German cultural heritage in Ukraine are identified. Sacred objects and public buildings and structures are best represented. The objects of German cultural heritage preserved to this day in the context of the regions of Ukraine are described. It was found that the main obstacles to the development of German ethnic tourism in Ukraine are the destruction of many cultural heritage objects, lack of funding for restoration of these objects, insufficient involvement of objects to tourist routes and low level of their promotion. The main ways to overcome these obstacles are identified: allocation of budget funds for the restoration of objects, attracting private investors, international organizations and German community; development of new tourist routes; marking places with information stands, publishing information materials about objects; digitalization of objects; organization of international conferences, round tables, festivals, etc.

Author Biographies

Nataliia I. Dnistrianska
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Mariana I. Senkiv
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Halyna Ya. Ilnytska-Hykavchu
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Myroslava I. Haba
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Oksana P. Makar
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

References

1. Baitsar, A., 2013. Heohrafiia nimetskykh poselen u Vynnykakh (v konteksti rozvytku etnokulturnoho turyzmu) [Geography of German settlements in Vynnyky (in the context of ethnocultural tourism development)]. Visnyk Lvivskoho universytetu. Seriia heohrafichna. – Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series of geography, 43, 11–16 Retrieved form: http://old.geography.lnu.edu.ua/ Publik/Period/visn/43(1)/index43(1).html (In Ukrainian).
2. Bidenko, N., 2012. Staryu dancing – pershe nimecke poselennia na terytorii Kirovogradskoi oblasti [Old Danzig is the first German settlement in the Kirovohrad region]. Naykovi zapysy Kirovogradskoho derzavnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu V. Vynnychenka, 16, 63–69. Retrieved from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/ Nz_i_2012_16_11 (In Ukrainian).
3. Dnistrianskyi, M. S., 2019. Rol riznospriamovanykh kolonizatsiinykh rukhiv u zaselenni Ukrainskykh Karpat uprodovzh ХІІІ – pershoi polovyny ХІХ st [The role of multidirectional colonization movements in the settlement of the Ukrainian Carpathians during the XIII – first half of the XIX century]. Lviv: LNU imeni Ivana Franka. Retrieved from: https://geography.lnu. edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Maket-Dnistrians- kyy-1–116.pdf (In Ukrainan).
4. Dorosh, Y., 2020. Nimetska istoryko-kulturna spadshchyna yak resurs dlia rozvytku nostalhiinoho turyzmu u Lvivskii oblasti [German historical and cultural heritage as a resource for the development of nostalgic tourism in the Lviv region]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu kultury i mystetstv. Seriia: Turyzm. Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series in Tourism, 1, 115–127 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31866/2616–7603.3.1.2020.207515 (In Ukrainіan).
5. Graham Brooks, 2011. Heritage as a driver for development Its contribution to sustainable tourism in contemporary society, 497–505. Retrieved from: https://openarchive. icomos.org/id/eprint/1207/1/III-1-Article1_Brooks.pdf.
6. Hnes, L.B., 2004. Nimetski kolonii Halychyny v riznykh sotsialno-ekonomichnykh formatsiiakh [German colonies of Galicia in various socio-economic formations]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu “Lvivska politekhnika” – Bulletin of the National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, 505, 174–178. Retrieved from: http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/ bitstream/ntb/9609/1/23.pdf (In Ukrainan).
7. Hradun, E. Iu., & Tomilevych L. V., 2016. Problemy ta perspektyvy doslidzhennia kulturnoi spadshchyny m. Dunaivtsi Khmelnytskoi oblasti [Problems and prospects of research of cultural heritage of Dunaivtsi, Khmelnytsky region]. Sivershchyna v istorii Ukrainy: Zb. nauk. pr. – Severshchyna in the history of Ukraine: Coll. Science. ave., 9, 33–39. Retrieved from: http://nz-hlukhiv.com.ua/wp-ontent/uploads/sivershuna/ sivershuna_2016.pdf (In Ukrainіan).
8. Kobyletskyi, M.M., 2008. Mahdeburzke pravo v Ukraini: XIV – poch. XIX st. Istoryko-pravove doslidzhennia [Magdeburg law in Ukraine: XIV – beg. XIX century Historical and legal research]. Lviv: PAIS (In Ukrainan).
9. Monolatii, I., 2000. Nimetski kolonii Halychyny v tablytsiakh. Dovidnyk [German colonies of Galicia in the tables. directory]. Kolomyia. Retrieved from: https://kalusz.io.ua/s120978/nimecki_kolonie_galichini (In Ukrainan).
10. Monolatii, I.S. 2002. Vid kontaktiv do spivpratsi: sotsialno- ekonomichne stanovlennia ta kulturnyi rozvytok nimtsiv u Halychyni [From contacts to cooperation: socio-economic formation and cultural development of Germans in Galicia]. Kolomyia: Vydavnytstva- polihrafichne tovarystvo “Vik” (In Ukrainan).
11. Nadolska, V., 2004. Nimtsi na Volyni: etapy rozvytku diaspory i suchasne natsionalno-kulturne vidrodzhennia [Germans in Volhynia: stages of diaspora development and modern national and cultural revival]. Etnichna istoriia narodiv Yevropy – Ethnic history of the peoples of Europe, 16, 114–119. Retrieved from: https://evnuir.vnu.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/935/3/16_19.pdf (In Ukrainan).
12. Nimci u Xersonskiy oblasti [Germans in the Kherson region]. Retrieved from: https://lib.kherson.ua/n-i-n_nimtsi.htm (In Ukrainian)
13. Nimetski slidy v Ukraini [German traces in Ukraine]. Sait Goethe-Institut v Ukraini – Goethe-Institut website in Ukraine. Retrieved from: https://www.goethe.de/ins/ ua/uk/kul/sup/dsu/art.html (In Ukrainan).
14. Nimtsi na Ukraini. Entsyklopediia Ukrainoznavstva [Germans in Ukraine. Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies]. 1996, Lviv, Vol.5, 1768–1774. Retrieved from: http://izbornyk. org.ua/encycl/euii133.htm (In Ukrainan).
15. Polyvach, K.A., 2012. Kulturna spadshchyna ta yii vplyv na rozvytok rehioniv Ukrainy [Cultural heritage and its impact on the development of the regions of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Instytut heohrafii NAN Ukrainy. Retrieved from: https://igu.org.ua/objects/default/files/pdf-text/ PolyvachK_Heritage.pdf (In Ukrainіan).
16. Shovchko, V. Liuteranska kirkha Volodymyr-Volynskoho [Lutheran Church of Volodymyr-Volynsky] Retrieved from: https://zabytki.in.ua/uk/2236/lyuteranska-kirkha- volodimir-volinskogo (In Ukrainan).
17. Silberberg, T., 1995. Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage places. Tourism Management, 16(5), 361–365.
18. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine: All-Ukrainian Census 2001. Retrieved from: http://2001.ukrcensus.gov.ua/
19. Stern, B.,1992. Historical and personal nostalgia in advertising text: The fin de sie’cle effect. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 11–22.
20. Sulimenko, O., 2009. Nimetska kolonizatsiia volynskoi hubernii v kintsi XVIII – 70-Kh rr. ХІХ st [German colonization of the Volyn province in the late XVIII – 70’s of the XIX century]. Retrieved from: http://eprints. zu.edu.ua/4862/1/Sulimenko_2.pdf (In Ukrainan).
21. Terebukh, A.A., Moroz, O.I., 2016. Otsiniuvannia turystychnoho potentsialu destynatsii [Estimation of tourism potential of destinations]. Aktualni problemy ekonomiky – Current problems of the economy, 7(181), 335–343 (In Ukrainian).
22. Timothy, D.F., 2011. Cultural Heritage and Tourism: An Introduction; Chanel View Publications: Bristol, UK.
23. UNESCO. Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies World Conference on Cultural Policies Mexico City, 26 July-6 August 1982. Retrieved from: https://culturalrights.net/descargas/drets_culturals401. pdf.
24. Volovyk, V. & Yatsiuk, V., 2017. Nimetski silski etnokulturni landshafty Podillia ХІХ – pochatku ХХ storichchia [German rural ethnocultural landscapes of the 19th – early 20th centuries]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka – Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 3–4 (68–69), 103–107 (In Ukrainan).
25. Volovyk, V. & Yatsiuk, V., 2017. Nimetski silski etnokulturni landshafty Podillia ХІХ – pochatku ХХ storichchia [German rural ethnocultural landscapes of the 19th – early 20th centuries]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka, Geografiya – Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Geography, 3–4 (68–69), 103–107. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.17721/1728–2721.2017.68.19 (In Ukrainіan).
Published
2021-12-23
How to Cite
Dnistrianska, N., Senkiv, M., Ilnytska-Hykavchu, H., Haba, M., & Makar, O. (2021). Tourism potential of Ukraine in the context of geography and current state of German cultural heritage. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 30(4), 632-641. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112158