The green infrastructure within the framework of a compact city concept (by example of Kyiv)

Keywords: Urban Green Spaces, Urban Green Infrastructure, compact city conception, green space provision per person, Green Space Index, rating of Kyiv districts


The goal of the study is to determine the actual areas and the geographical distri- bution of Urban Green Spaces (UGS) in Kyiv; compile and analyse the ratings of the city administrative districts by key UGS indicators and substantiate the level of comfortable living in each district according to the concept of a green compact city. The goal stems from the announcement of an official strategy of transforming Kyiv into a comfortable compact city with an attractive green infrastructure. To achieve this goal, we have calculated a number of major indicators of the modern green infrastructure of Kyiv in all ten city districts. According to the method we developed, we analysed the drawings of the urban development master plan and regulatory documents, and conducted a field survey of significant UGS sites in Kyiv. The data obtained were used to make a UGS map of Kyiv and other thematic maps. For the most accurate calculation of key UGS indicators, we processed several thousand contours in Kyiv’s cartographic base. The sizes of Urban Protected Areas (UPA) were found separately, and their share in the total city territory and of each district (Conservation Coefficients) was determined. In so doing, UPA distribution was found to be very irregular, with a total area of 174.9 km2, or about 21.2% of that of Ukraine’s capital. We analysed the ratio of the city population and the areas of green spaces in each Kyiv district. To identify districts with a different UGS coverage, we calculated the Greenness Coefficients (GC) and compiled a rating of Kyiv districts by their level of greenness, using the Greenness Coefficients Index. Significant GC variations in different city districts were substantiated. In contrast to previous studies, we calculated the provision of Kyiv residents with green zones of not merely common usage, but also with those of all other kinds, including UPA. We also calculated the Green space provision per person and compiled ratings of Kyiv districts by the Green Space Provision Index. The results were presented on a relevant map. Based on calculating the share of protected areas in the total UGS area, we found the ratings of Kyiv districts by the Green space legally protected Index. Wherein, we found significant variations among the districts by the ratio of protected areas and green spaces deprived of any legal protection. This increases their vulnerability to projected development attempts. We calculated the Integral Green Space Index (GSI) based on processing all significant UGS indicators of Kyiv. GSI allows for an integral assessment of the condition of the Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) in Kyiv, and it is the key criterion of its compliance with modern requirements to an ideal compact city. Holosiivskyi District received the highest GSI rating. It is uniformly replete with UGS, which are provided for quality recreation and, at the same time, are protected by environmental legislation. Solomianskyi District received the lowest rating, and almost all the elements of its existing UGI require a cardinal optimisation. As a whole, the indicators we calculated can create an illusion of adequate provision of Kyiv with UGS. Actually, they are distributed very irregularly in the majority of districts. The results of our study are indicative of the presence of many challenging locations that require an extension of existing UGS and the development of new ones pursuant to the principles of compact city planning. Since UGI planning depends on the implementation of the Urban Development Master Plan, it makes sense to include the Green Space Index to the key indicators of the Kyiv Development Strategy. The draft new City General Plan should also be refined with account of the above-mentioned problems.

Author Biographies

Olena P. Havrylenko
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
Petro H. Shyshchenko
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
Yevhen Yu. Tsyhanok
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv


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How to Cite
Havrylenko, O., Shyshchenko, P., & Tsyhanok, Y. (2021). The green infrastructure within the framework of a compact city concept (by example of Kyiv). Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 30(2), 275-288.