Long term hydrological and environmental monitoring of the Stryi River using remote sensing data and GIS technologies


Keywords: geological structures, monitoring, topographic maps, satellite images, Ukrainian Carpathians

Abstract

The proposed research sets the task of conducting monitoring aimed at determining the horizontal displacements of the channel of the Stryi River the largest right-bank tributary of the Dniester River. For this purpose, the river was zoned according to morphometric and hydrological characteristics. Three parts were identified, namely highland, piedmont and lowland ones, which radically vary in the nature of the flow and the amount of the displacement. The main research purpose consists in analyzing the impact of anthropogenic factors on the hydrological regime of the Stryi River, as well as studying the effect of the Ukrainian Carpathian Foredeep (UCF) and the Stryi Deep on the mode of horizontal displacements. The research object is processes occurring within the Stryi River channel. Considering main natural factors affecting the channel’s horizontal displacements, special attention is paid to the geological and sedimentological structures located in the region where the Stryi River and its tributaries flow; among the anthropogenic factors, deforestation and the extraction of building materials from the river channel are highlighted. Topographic, geological, soil maps and satellite images of various periods uploaded into ArcGIS software allowed us to monitor displacements observed for as long as 140 years ago. To monitoring the Stryi River channel displacements, such materials as topographic maps scaled 1: 75000 (Austrian period – 1874), 1: 100000 (Polish period – 1933, Soviet period – 1990); satellite images of Sentinel-2 (2019 and 2020 (after the flood)); a map of Quaternary sediments and a soil map scaled 1: 200000 were used. The Stryi River flows between two structures, i.e. the Skybovi Carpathians and the UCF. The right-bank tributaries (Bystrytsia, Limnitsia, Stryi, etc.), which begin in the Carpathians, cross the outer and inner boundaries of the UCF and are characterized by the stable river channel in its mountainous part, multi-braided in its piedmont part, as well as perennial and significant meandering within the Pre-Carpathian region. Lithological deposits have a significant impact at the mouth of the Stryi River. According to the research study results, displacements of up to 1,350m are measured in this area. The research includes an analysis of the influence of geological and sedimentological structures on the Stryi River displacement and the nature of its flow. It has been established that deforestation in the river basin, as well as unauthorized extraction of gravel materials, creates a significant environmental problem in this region. The results of monitoring of the channel deformation processes should be taken into account when solving problems related to river channel processes, namely the construction of hydraulic structures, the design of power transmission networks crossing rivers, the development of gas pipelines, the identification of hazardous flooding zones, the determination of consequences of destruction after floods, the establishment of boundaries of water protection zones, the management of recreational activities, monitoring of border lands and the establishment of an interstate border along rivers.

Author Biographies

Khrystyna V. Burshtynska
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Svitlana S. Kokhan
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
Andrii V. Babushka
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Ihor M. Bubniak
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv
Volodymyr M. Shevchuk
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

References

1. Ali, A., Riaz, S., & Iqbal S. (2014). Deforestation and its impacts on climate change an overview of Paki- stan. Papers on Global Change IGBP.
2. Bayrak H. (2011). Suchasni ruslovi protsesy i dynamika rusla r.Tysy na dilyantsi peretynu Vyhorlat- Hutynsʹkoho vulkanichnoho pasma. [Modern channel processes and dynamics of the Tisza riv- erbed at the intersection of the Vygorlat-Gutyn volcanic ridge]. Fizychna heohrafiya ta heomor- folohiya. 62. 45–54. (in Ukrainian).
3. Beighley, R. E., Eggert, K. G., Dunne, T., He, Y., Gum- madi, V., & Verdin K. L. (2009). Simulating hy- drologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin. Hydrological Processes: An International Journal, 23(8), 1221-1235.
4. Bradshaw, C. J., Sodhi, N. S., PEH, K. S. H., & Brook B.W. (2007). Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the develop- ing world. Global Change Biology, 13(11), 2379- 2395.
5. Bubniak I., Bubniak A. (1997). Pro pryrodu Stryiskoho yurskoho prohynu. [On the nature of the Stryi Ju- rassic depression]. Pratsi NTSh. Heolohiia, heo- fizyka, khemiia, biokhemiia, materialoznavstvo, mekhanika materialiv. 69–72. (in Ukrainian).
6. Buffington, J. M., Woodsmith, R. D., Booth, D. B., & Montgomery D. R. (2003). Fluvial processes in Puget Sound rivers and the Pacific Northwest. Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers, 46-78.
7. Burshtynska Kh., Shevchuk V., Babushka A., Tretyak S., Halochkin M. (2018). Monitoring of the riverbed of river Dniester using remote sensing data and GIS technologies. 25th Anniversary Conference Geographic Information Systems Conference and Exhibition “GIS ODYSSEY 2018”, 64-73.
8. Burshtynska Kh., Zayac I., Tretyak S., Halochkin M. (2017). Monitoring of the riverbed of river Dni- ester of the Сarpathian Region using GIS technologies. Archiwum Fotogrametrii, Kartografii i Teledetekcji, vol. 29. 25-36.
9. Burshtynska, K. V., Babushka, A. V., Bubniak, I. M., Ba- biy, L. V., & Tretyak S. K. (2019). Influence of geological structures on the nature of riverbed displacements for the rivers of the Dnister basin upper part. Heodynamika: scientific journal, 2 (27), 24-38.
10. Burshtynska, K., Polishchuk, B., & Madyar J. (2014). The definition of the area of felling forests by high resolution satellite images. Geomatics, Landma- nagement and Landscape. 3. 43-54.
11. Burshtynska, K., Shevchuk, V., Tretyak, S., & Vekliuk V. (2016). Monitoring of the riverbeds of rivers Dniester and Tisza of the Carpathian region. Interna- tional Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, 41.
12. Burshtynska, Kh., Tretiak, S., & Halochkin M. (2017). Doslidzhennia horyzontalnykh zmishchen rusla richky Dnister z vykorystanniam danykh DZZ ta HIS-tekhnolohii. [Investigation of horizontal dis- placements of the Dniester riverbed using remote sensing data and GIS technologies]. Heodynami- ka 2(23). 14-24. (in Ukrainian).
13. Buys P. (2007). At loggerheads?: agricultural expansion, poverty reduction, and environment in the tropi- cal forests. World Bank Publications.
14. Guneralp I. (2011). Channel avulsion processes on the lower Brazos river, Texas/Guneralp I., Billy U. Hales, Anthony M. Filippi. TWDB Final Report, 904830968, 88.
15. Havrylyshyn, V. Y., Pasternak, S. Y., & Rozumeiko S.V. (1991). Stratyhrafycheskye podrazdelenyia melovykh otlozhenyi platformennoi chasti zapada Ukrainy. [Stratigraphic subdivisions of Cretaceous deposits of the platform part of the west of Ukraine]. Instytut heolohyii heokhimii horiuchykh iskopaemykh. Lvov, AN USSR. C.52. (in Russian).
16. Hintov, O. B., Bubniak, Y. N., Vykhot, Yu. M., Murovs- kaia, A. V., & Nakapeliukh M. V. (2011). Evoljutsia napriazhenno-deformirovannoho sostoianyia i dynamyka Skybovoho pokrova Ukraynskykh Karpat. [Evolution of the stress-strain state and dynamics of the Skib cover of the Ukrainian Carpathians]. Heofyzycheskyi zhurnal. 5. 17-34. (in Russian).
17. Hooke J. (2006). Hydromorphological adjustment in mean- dering river systems and the role of flood events. IAHS PUBLICATION, 306, 127.
18. Horishnyi P. (2014). Horyzontalni deformatsii nyzhnoi techii rusla richky Stryi u 1896–2006 rr. [Horizontal deformation of the lower flow of the Striy riverbed in the 1896–2006 period]. Problemy heo- morfolohii i paleoheohrafii Ukrainskykh Karpat i prylehlykh terytorii. Vydavnytstvo LNU imeni Ivana Franka. 68-74. (in Ukrainian).
19. Janicke S. (2000). Stream channel processes. Water & Riv- ers Commission.
20. Josephat M. (2018). Deforestation in Uganda: Population increase, forests loss and climate change. Environ Risk Assess Remediat, 2(2), 46-50.
21. Kabal M. (2016). Rol lisiv u pidtrymtsi vodnoho balansu v umovakh Ukrainskykh Karpat. [The role of forests in maintaining water balance in the Ukrainian Carpathians]. Ukrainian Nature Conservation Group. (in Ukrainian).
22. Kokhan S., Dorozhynskyy O., Burshtynska K., Vosto- kov A., Drozdivskyi O. (2020). Improved Approach to the Development of the Crop Monitoring System Based on the Use of Multi-Source Spatial Data. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 21 (7). 108-114.
23. Kovalchuk I. (2003). Hidroloho-heomorfolohichni protsesy v Karpatskomu regioni Ukrainy. [Hydrological and geomorphological processes in the Carpathian region of Ukraine]. Pratsi naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka. T. XII: Ekolohichnyi zbirnyk. Ekolohichni problemy Karpatskoho rehionu. 101-125. (in Ukrainian).
24. Legg, N. T., & Olson P. L. (2014). Channel migration pro- cesses and patterns in Western Washington: A synthesis for floodplain management and restoration. Shorelands and Environmental Assistance Program, Washington State Department of Ecology.
25. Li-An, C., Billa, L., & Azari M. (2018). Anthropocene cli- mate and landscape change that increases flood disasters. Int J Hydro, 2(4), 487-491.
26. Miller, J., Germanoski, D., Waltman, K., Tausch, R., & Chambers J. (2001). Influence of late Holocene hillslope processes and landforms on modern channel dynamics in upland watersheds of central Nevada. Geomorphology, 38(3-4), 373-391.
27. Nakapelyukh, M., Bubniak, I., Bubniak, A., Jonckheere, R., & Ratschbacher L. (2018). Cenozoic struc- tural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt. Tectono- physics, 722, 197-209.
28. Nelson S. River Systems & Causes of Flooding / Stephen A. Nelson (2012). Tulane University, Dept. Earth & Environmental Sciences, 1-13.
29. Parpan, V. I., & Olijnyk V. S. (2009). Pavodkorehuliuvalnarol hirskykh lisiv Karpat ta shliakhy yikh optymizatsii. [Flood-regulating role of Carpathian mountain forests and ways of their optimization]. Ekolohia ta noosferolohia. 20, 1–2. 121–127.
30. Rudko, H. I., & Petryshyn V. Yu. (2014). Kharakterystyka rodovyshch valunno-hraviino-pishchanykh porid u Lvivskii oblasti ta yikh vplyv na ekolohichnyi stan pryrodnoho seredovyshcha mistsevosti. [Characteristics of boulder-gravel-sand deposits in Lviv region and their impact on the ecological state of the natural environment]. Mineralni resursy Ukrainy, (1). 39-47. (in Ukrainian).
31. Shevchuk, V. M., & Burshtynska Kh. V. (2011). Metodyka monitorynhu richok na urbanizovanykh terytoriiakh. [Methods of rivers monitoring in urban areas]. Heodeziia, kartohrafiia i aerofotozniman- nia. Vyp, 75. 73-82. (in Ukrainian).
32. Shuliarenko I. (1998). Otsinka horyzontalnykh ruslovykh deformatsii ta stiikosti rusel malykh i serednikh richok baseinu Dnipra. [Estimation of horizontal channel deformations and stability of channels of small and average rivers of the Dnieper basin]. Avtoreferat dysertatsii na zdobuttia naukovoho stupenia kandydata heohrafichnykh nauk. Kyiv.
33. Volosetskyi, B. I., & Shpyrnal T. H. (2013). Doslidzhen- nia perenesennia hraviino-halkovykh mas u rusli r. Stryi za danymy heodezychnoho monitorynhu. [Study of gravel-pebble mass transfer in the Stryi riverbed according to geodetic monitoring data]. Heodeziia, kartohrafiia i aerofotoznimannia. Vyp. 77. 115-121. (in Ukrainian).
34. Yatsyk, A. V., Byshovets, L. V., & Bohatov Ye. O. (1991). Mali richky Ukrainy: Dovidnyk. [Small rivers of Ukraine: Handbook]. Urozhai, Kyiv.
35. You, X. (2012). Forest and flood: aftermath of the 1998 Yangtze River flood.
Published
2021-07-17
How to Cite
Burshtynska, K., Kokhan, S., Babushka, A., Bubniak, I., & Shevchuk, V. (2021). Long term hydrological and environmental monitoring of the Stryi River using remote sensing data and GIS technologies. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 30(2), 215-230. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112119