Problems of technical exploitation and ecological safety of hydrotechnical facilities of irrigation systems


Keywords: hydrotechnical facility, irrigation canal, retention pond, technical condition, seeping losses, geophysical methods of survey

Abstract

In this work, we analyzed and studied the Ukrainian typical hydrotechnical structures of the ameliorative complex on soil materials. On the examples of such objects in Dnipropetrovsk oblast, we carried out research and determined the technical condition of the transporting (main irrigation canals) and regulating (retention ponds) hydrotechnical structures (HTS). The main factors and the reasons for the negative engineering-geological processes occurring in those structures and affecting the ecological balance of adjacent territories were determined. The study revealed that the long period of exploitation and absence of corresponding technical care have led to significant losses of irrigation water from the canals and retention ponds. Due to the systemic absence and low use of monitoring researchers, we have proposed the use of prompt and low-cost methods and means of technical diagnostics. The article presents the possibility of using a complex of geophysical methods of natural impulse magnetic field of the Earth and vertical electrical sounding for the purposes of technical diagnostics. The possibility of recording plots and parameters of zones of seepage deformations in the body and at the base of the structures was visually determined and instrumentally proven. This allows identifying the amounts of technical and material resources, stages and order of implementation of repair-restoration works. It was determined that share of the damaged zones accounts for 20 to 35% of the total length of the hydrotechnical structures dependingon their type and parameters of the constructions. In such conditions, the estimated losses of water equal 17-22% of the total amount of the delivery. The surveys showed that further operation of HC poses an ecological threat because of significant worsening of quality of water resources. The article presents disturbing dynamics of change in the irrigated areas involving the danger of secondary salinization, sodification, alkalinization, and toxification as a result of watering. We indicated threatening changes in the structures of the areas irrigated with low-quality water, which, according to various indicators of danger, increased by 1.4 times regarding threat of secondary salinization and by 2 times regarding threat of sodification. We proposed and substantiated approaches to improving the general technical and technological level of functioning of ameliorative structures in the context of maintaining ecological balance and economic practicability of their further use, based on the principles of systemic optimization of complex technical-natural ecosystems.

Author Biographies

Leonid M. Rudakov
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro 
Hennadii V. Hapich
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro
Olga V. Orlinska
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro
Dmytro S. Pikarenia
Dniprovsk State Technical University, Kamianske
Volodymyr V. Kovalenko
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro
Iryna V. Chushkina
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro
Viktoriia Y. Zaporozhchenko
Dnipro state agrarian and economic university, Dnipro

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Published
2020-12-27
How to Cite
Rudakov, L., Hapich, H., Orlinska, O., Pikarenia, D., Kovalenko, V., Chushkina, I., & Zaporozhchenko, V. (2020). Problems of technical exploitation and ecological safety of hydrotechnical facilities of irrigation systems. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 29(4), 776-788. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112070