Basin systems of small rivers of Western Podillya: state, change tendencies, perspectives of nature management and nature protection optimization


Keywords: river basin system, anthropic changes, land use optimization, basin nature protection network, recreational nature utilization

Abstract

The level of anthropogenization of the natural processes and the geocomponents of the basin geosystems of small rivers in Western Podillya has been estimated and rated as ecologically dangerous from the viewpoint of sustainable and conflict free functioning. The scales of the transformation of the components of natural environment by economic activities since 1774 were revealed using the method of comparative-geographic analysis of cartographic sources. The scales of deforestation were determined, as well as the scales of the influences of drainage meliorations on wetlands, river floodplains and riverbed complexes. It has been established that such transformations of the state of the components of landscape systems have caused the manifestation of a set of unfavorable processes and phenomena (lowering of ground water level, promoting desiccation, soil erosion and deflation, soil dehumification, decreasing landscape and biological diversity, etc.). Calculated indices of the anthropogenic modification of natural components testify that the strongest adversary impacts on river systems and basin landscapes are caused by agriculture, deforestation, and drainage meliorations. Our analysis of the current state of reclaimed lands in the basins of the rivers Dzhuryn and Nichlava confirmed the conclusions of B. I Kozlovsky on the effects of drainage reclamation on groundwater in drained lands and of the formation within them and around drainage systems of negative hydrogeological zones of different widths. In the absence of precipitation for 30-45 consecutive days in summer there is a sharp decrease in groundwater levels, and overdrying of soils, which causes the manifestation and intensification of deflation, shallowing and even drying of the upper reaches of rivers and streams. At the final stage of the study, a system of measures aimed at ensuring the sustainability of river basin geosystems was substantiated. The introduction of an optimization model of land use in the basin geosystem is one of the priority tasks in the context of negative changes in the water regime of watercourses and the water balance of river basin systems. Optimization measures provide for the transformation of the part of degraded and unproductive lands towards the grasslands and the planting of gardens (slopes up to 7°) and afforestation (surface steepness over 7°) to improve the quality of environment and to form the environmentally secure land use system. Regional indices of anthropogenic transformation for the existing and proposed land structure as a normative regional indices of nature utilization optimality are calculated. Substantiation of schemes of basin nature protection networks was based on taking into account the role of protected areas in maintaining certain functional features at the sources, in the middle and lower parts of river basins. Based on the results of field surveys, it is proposed to create nine protected areas within the Dzhuryn Basin and eight protected areas within the Nichlava river basin, which will increase the share of protected areas of the Dzhuryn basin to 8% (compared to present 4.8%) and Nichlava to 19%. At the same time, it is proposed to change the structure of the nature reserve fund of the Nichlava river basin, taking into account the existing high share (77%) of general zoological reserves, inefficient from the standpoint of conservation of natural complexes, instead creating six landscape reserves on an area of about 800 hectares. The paper considers the possibility of further development of the tourist and recreational sphere in the near-Dnister sections of the river basins of Dzhuryn and Nichlava, and proposes the creation of Borshchiv Regional landscape park in the picturesque valley of the Nichlava River.

Author Biographies

Ljubomyr P. Tsaryk
Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk national Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Ivan P. Kovalchuk
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Petro L. Tsaryk
Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk national Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Bogdan S. Zhdaniuk
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Lutsk, Ukraine
Ihor R. Kuzyk
Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk national Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine

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file:///D:/Users/User/Desktop/Krzemie%20%20-%20The%20Czarny%20Dunajec%20River.pdf
Published
2020-10-13
How to Cite
Tsaryk, L., Kovalchuk, I., Tsaryk, P., Zhdaniuk, B., & Kuzyk, I. (2020). Basin systems of small rivers of Western Podillya: state, change tendencies, perspectives of nature management and nature protection optimization. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 29(3), 606-620. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/112055

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