Geological and geomorphological and historical components of the rock monasteries of the Middle Podnistrovia


Keywords: rock monastery, Middle Podnistrovia, geological structure, lithogenic basis, geohistorical monuments

Abstract

The paper describes a combination of lithological basis and foundation of cave monasteries of the Middle Podnistrovie. This combination resulted in specific integrated geohistorical monuments (geosites). In the steep rocks of the canyon-like valley of the Dniester, in the process of Christianity, numerous individual or communal caves have been made. Nowadays, only three have remained and continue to be used for their original religious purpose: Bakota, Neporotovo, and Liadova cave monasteries. The place for foundation was not randomly chosen and was conditioned by several factors, the essential ones being geomorphological and sacred aspects. The geologic-geomorphologic factor was determined by presence of high and almost inaccessible rocks that allowed solitude and relative security for the inhabitants from raids of non-Christians. Not the last role belonged to the rocks, in which using simple tools, caves could be cut and rooms organized. It was determined that Bakota rock monastery was founded in opokas of Cenomanian stage, which were highly porous, and were malleable for processing. The tortuous route above the caves of the Bakota monastery was made in solid Sarmatian limestones along the denudation fractures widened by karst processes and by tools. Neporotovo cave monastery has mixed natural-anthropogenic origins and was initiated by karst-suffusion processes     in the oolite Sarmatian limestones. Liadova cave monastery as well as Bakota cave monastery were cut from Cenomanian deposits, but in carbon facies, in which Cretaceous-like limestones dominate , which are malleable for making passageways Hydrogeological conditions were important for the building of the monastery, particularly, presence of drinking water. The sacred component was conditioned by religious canon laws and traditions. Each of the studied monasteries has a complex, and often tragic history recorded in archeological materials and archive documents, but the greater part of their thousand years history remains unknown.

Author Biographies

О. V. Riabokon
Communal Higher Educational the Institution Vinnitsia Academy of Continuing Education
L. V. Strashevska
Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi Vinnitsa State Pedagogical University

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Published
2019-10-08