Micromorphological peculiarities of the Pleistocene soils in the Middle Pobuzhzhya (Ukraine) and their significance for paleogeographic reconstructions


Keywords: Pleistocene, fossil soils, micromorphology, soil formation processes, paleogeography

Abstract

The basic micromorphological features of fossil Pleistocene soils of the Middle Pobuzhzhya region are revealed. The early Neopleistocene (Shyrokyne, Martonosha, Lubny) and Middle Pleistocene Zavadivka soils are characterized by bright brownish, reddish and brownish colors of plasma, compact composing structural separations in the form of cleave blocks with densely packed nodular formations of ferruginous matter, cracksman ship of the mass, a significantamount of ferruginous, manganese and carbonate new formations. In the soils of the early optimum of the Kaydaky stage, signs of the eluvial-illuvial processes were observed (impoverished on the thin clays and humus fields with the «washed» grains of the mineral skeleton, the destroyed microaggregates in the eluvial and the impregnation of the plasma by calomorphic clays in the form of streaks, films, streams in the illuvial horizons). In the Pryluky soils there is a well-expressed microagregation of the mass, a branched net of twisted pores, humus coagulation in the humus and humus transition horizons, various forms of carbonate new formations as the impregnation and plasma cementation by microcrystalline calcite, presence of isolated crystals of crypto-, micro- and small crystalline calcite. The specific individual features of the Vytachiv soils are cleave block microstructure, the presence of the nodular concentric organo-iron-clay formations, and microorsteins. Dofinivka soils are characterized by a loose microstructure, fuzzy rounded microaggregates, a developed system of twisted pores, and enrichment of mass on carbonates. In order to clarify the genetic types of fossil Pleistocene soils of the Middle Pobuzhzhya, identification of the signs of elementary soil formation processes was carried out on the basis of micromorphological analysis data. The significance of the results of micromorphological researches for paleogeographical reconstruction is outlined. It has been established that certain groups of soil formation processes are characteristic for fossil soils of separate paleogeographical stages. In the soils formed up to the Dnieper glaciation (Shyrokyne, Martonosha, Lubny and Zavadivka), signs of processes of claying, rubbification, ferralization, cleaving were displayed, but weakly expressed humus formation, thoughcarbonization were diagnosed. In the soils formed after the maximum glaciation (Kaydaky, Pryluky, Vytachiv, Dofinivka), signs of the such processes as humus formation, podzolization, lessive, leaching, damp-meadow soil formation on floodplain, migration of carbonates, etc., are established. It is processes which are predominating in the modern soils of the territory of Ukraine. Assertaintment of elementary soil-forming processes, diagnosed in multi-annual fossil soils, have made it possible to identify their genetic types and as a result, to reconstruct the soil cover in separate stages of the Neopleistocene, to establish regional patterns of evolutional stadial changes and the natural environment in the Pleistocene on the territory of the Middle Pobuzhzhya.

Author Biographies

Zh. M. Matviishyna
Institute of Geography, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
S. P. Doroshkevych
Institute of Geography, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

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Published
2019-07-06