Palaeoenvironmental changes during the Middle and Early Upper-Paleolithic in the UpperTysa Depression, Ukraine (the Sokyrnytsya and Ruban’ sites)


Keywords: lithopedostratigrpahy, palynology, short-period environmental phases, cultural levels

Abstract

The aim of the study is the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments of the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic in the Upper-Tysa Depression, related to short-period Upper Pleistocene changes. Stratigraphical, palaeopedological, pollen and archaeological methodologies have been applied in the study of several excavations at the Sokyrnytsya 1 and Ruban’ sites. Intense translocation processes (during formation of Luvisols and Albic Luvisols) during Late Pleistocene warm phases and Holocene, frequently transformed the material of underlying cold-phase non-soil sediments. The last are revealed in the lower horizons of palaeosols by their pollen assemblages, indicative of a periglacial climate, and by the levels with cryoturbations. The pollen succession of the last interglacial is found in the well-developed Kaydaky Luvisol. The presence of beech growing during the second half of the interglacial is a special feature of Transcarpathia. Above, two interstadials and two stadials are revealed in the early glacial. At Sokyrnytsya 1, Middle Palaeolithic first appeared at the very end of the last interglacial (when boreal forests dominated), and it is traced through sediments of the early glacial interstadials. The small collections of artefacts and the absence of specialized features on them do not allow them to be assigned to a specified technological-typological complex. During the interstadials of the early glacial (‘pl1’ and ‘pl3’), Luvisols and Cambisols developed beneath woodland, dominated by pine, but with admixture of deciduous trees, under a south-boreal climate. The cultural level at Ruban’, located in the transitional horizon from the late Pryluky soil to the Uday loess unit, is related to the Quina-type industry. Its analogues are quite common in Western Europe, but up to now have not been known to the east of the Carpathians. At that time, broad-leaved trees disappeared; the climate became cooler and drier. The presence of dry seasons is indicated by a level with abundant Fe-Mn concretions. At Sokyrnytsya 1, the Early Upper Palaeolithic non-Aurignacian cultural level is found in the Vytachiv unit (Middle Pleniglacial, around 38 - 39 ka BP). It is characterized by a technological-typological complex which has its analogue only in Eastern Europe (Kostenki XIV). In Vytachiv times, woodland, dominated by small-leaved trees,alternated with open landscapes of forbs and sedges. The climate was transitional from south-boreal to boreal. The Upper Palaeolithic level, which also is not related to a distinctive culture, is located above the level of the Bug (Late Pleniglacial), cryoturbations which deeply dissect the Vytachiv unit. The presence of both West European and East European archaeological industries and the exceptional palaeoenvironmental features of the studied area demonstrate its importance in the European context.

Author Biographies

N. P. Gerasimenko
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
L. Kulakovska
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
V. Usik
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
O. Votiakova
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

References

1. Adamenko, O.M., Adamenko, R.S., Gladilin, V.N., Grodetskaya, G.D., Levkovskaya, G.M., Pashkevich., G.A., Pospelova, G.A., Soldatenko, L.V., Shelkoplyas, V.N., 1989. Paleoliticheskiy pamyatnik Korolevo v Zakarpatye [The Korolevo Paleolithic site in Transcarpathia]. Bulleten’ Komissii po izucheniyu chetvertichnogo perioda, 58, 5-25 (in
Russian).
2. Bezus’ko, L.G., Mosyakin, S.L., Bezus’ko, A.G., 2011. Zakonomirnosti ta tendentsii rozvytku roslynnogo pokryvu Ukrainy u piznyomu pleistotseni ta golotseni [The regularities and developmet trends of vegetational cover of Ukraine during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene]. Altepress, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
3. Bobrov, A.E., Kupriyanova, L.A., Litvintseva, M.V., Tarasevich, M.F., 1983. Spory paporotnikoobraznyh i pyl’tsa golosemennyh i odnodol’nyh rasteniy flory Evropeyskoy chasti SSSR [Spores of Pteridophyta and pollen of Gimnospermae and Monocotyledoneae plants from the flora of the European part of the SSSR]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
4. Bolikhovskaya, N.S., 1995. Evolyutsia lessovo-pochvennoy formatsii Severo-Vostochnoy Yevrazii [Evolution of loess-soil formation of the Northern Eurasia]. MGU, Moscow (in Russian).
5. Bordes, F., Bourgon, M. , 1951. Le Complexe Moustérien: Moustériens, Levallosien at Tayacien. L›Antropologie 55, 1-23.
6. Gerasimenko, N., 2006a. Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosol and vegetational successions in the Middle Dnieper Area, Ukraine. Quaternary International 149, 55-66.
7. Gerasimenko, N.P., 2006b. Dynamika paleoekologichnih obstanovok na stoyantsi Sokyrnytsya (Zakarpattya) [The palaeoenvironmental dynamics at the Sokyrnytsya site (Transcarpathia)] In Yevropeyskyi seredniy paleolit. Shlayah, Kyiv, 32-61 (in Russian).
8. Gerasimenko, N., Matviishina, Zh., 2007. Problemy zavadivs’kogo ‘Velykogo Interglyatsialu’ [Problems of the Zavadivka Great Interglacial’]. In Materialy XIV Ukr.-Pol. seminaru ‘Problemy serednyopleystotsenovogo interglyatsialu’. Ivan Franko National University of L’viv, L’viv (in Ukrainian).
9. Gerasimenko, N., Matviishina, Zh., Perederiy V.I., Ivchenko A.S., Parhomenko, O.G., Karmazinenko, S.P., 2010. Prostorovo-chasova korelyatsia paleogeografichnyh umov chetvertynnogo periodu na territorii Ukrainy [Spacial-temporal correlation of palaeoenvironmets during the Quaternary in the area of Ukraine]. Naukova dumka, Kyiv.
10. Gerasimenko, N., Vozgrin B., 2011. The Gat’section as a new reference Quaternary site of the Transcarpathia. In P. Gozhik (Ed.). The Quaternary studies in Ukraine. To XVIII Congress of INQUA. Kyiv, 27-38.
11. Gladilin, V.N., 1985. Ranniy paleolit [The Early Paleolithic]. In Archeology of the Ukrainian SSR, v. 1. Naukova Dumka. Kyiv, 12-54 (in Russian).
12. Gladilin, V.N., Sitlivy, V.I., 1990. Ashel’ Centralnoy Evropy [The Acheulean of the Central Europe]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (in Russian).
13. Gozhik, P.F. (Ed.), 2000. Korelyatsia lesiv i lyodovykovyh vidkladiv Pol’shchi i Ukrainy [Correlation of loesses and glacial deposits of Poland and Ukraine]. Excursion Guide of the Хth PolishUkrainian seminar. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
14. Grichuk, V.P., 1989. Istoria flory i rastitel’nosti Russkoy ravniny v pleistotsene [History of flora and vegetation of the Russian Plain during the Pleistocene]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
15. Haesaerts, P., Damblon, F., Gerasimenko, N., Spagna, P., Pirson, S., 2016. The Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequence of Middle Belgium. Quaternary International, 411, 1-19.
16. Hammen, van der, Th., 1995. The Dinkel valley revisited: Pleniglacial stratigraphy of the eastern Netherlands and global climatic change. Mededeingen Rijsk Geologishe Dienst 52, 343-355.
17. Kremenetskiy, K.V., 1991. Paleoekologia drevneyshiv zemledel’tsev i skotovodov Russkoy ravniny [Palaeoecology of the oldest farmers and cattle breeders of the Russian Plain]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
18. Kulakovskaya, L.V., 1989. Must’erskie kultury Karpatskogo basseyna [The Mousterian cultures of the Carpathian Basin]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (in Russian).
19. Kulakovska, L.V., 2003. Serednyopaleolitychni variatsyi na zakhodi Ukrainy [The Middle Palaeolithic variations in Western Ukraine]. In Variabelnist’ serednyogo paleolitu Ukrainy. Kyiv, 10-32 (in Ukrainian).
20. Kulakovska, L. V., Gerasimenko, N. P., Usyk, V. I., Votyakova, O. L., 2018. Serednyopaleolitychna stoyanka Ruban’ u Zakarpatti: stratygrafiya, khronologiya, industriya [Middle Paleolithic Site Ruban’ in Transcarpathia: Stratigraphy, Chronology, Industry]. Arkheologiya i davnya istoriya Ukrainy 1(26), 7-20 (in Ukrainian).
21. Kupriyanova, L.A., Alyeshina, L.A., 1972. Pyl’tsa i spory rasteniy flory Evropeyskoy chasti SSSR [Pollen and spores of plants from the flora of the European part of the SSSR], Vol. 1. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).
22. Kupriyanova, L.A., Alyeshina, L.A., 1978. Pyl’tsa dvudol’nykh rasteniy flory Evropeyskoy chasti SSSR [Pollen of dicotyledonous plants from the flora of the European part of the SSSR], Vol. 2. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).
23. Lindner, L., Bogutsky, A., Gozhik, P. Marks, L., Lanćzont, M., Wojtanovicz, J., 2006. Correlation of the Pleistocene deposits in the area between the Baltic and Black Sea, Central Europe. Geological Quarterly 50, 195-210.
24. Monigal, K., Usik, V., Koulakovska, L., Gerasimenko, N., 2006. The beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in Transcarpathia, Ukraine. Antropologie XLIV/1, 61-74.
25. Pashkevich, G.M., 1984. Pryrodne seredovyshche v epochu paleolitu-mesolitu na territorii Ukrainy [Environment in the area of Ukraine during the Paleolithic and Neolithic]. Arkheologia 47, 1-12 (in Ukrainian).
26. Petrun’, V.F., 1972. Levalluazskie masterskie obsidianovyh orudiy v Zakarpatye i problemy syrya [The Levallois workshops of obsidian tools in the Transcarpathia and the problems of raw materials]. In Materialy 13-oy konferencii Instituta arkheologii AN USSR. Kiev, 86-92 (in Russian).
27. Reille, M., 1995. Pollen et spores d’Europe et d’Afrique du Nord. Supplement 1. Laboratoire de Botanique Historique et Palynologie. URA CNRS 1152, Marseille.
28. Rousseau D.-D., Gerasimenko N., Matviishina Zh., Kukla G., 2001. Late Pleistocene environments of Central Ukraine. Quaternary International 56, 349- 356.
29. Skutil J., 1938. Paleolitikum Slovenska a Podkarpatskej Rusi. In Spicy historiczkego odboru matice slovenskej v Turčianskom Svätý Martine, sv.4. Vydalmatica Slovenska, Turčiansky Svätý Martine.
30. Stepanchuk, V.M., Matviishyna, Zh.M., Ryzhov, S.M., Karmazinenko, S.P., 2013. Davnya lyudyna. Paleogeografia ta arkhaeologia [Early Man. Paleogeograhy and archaeology]. Naukova dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
31. Usik, V.I., 2001. Sokyrnytsya – novaya stratifitsirovannaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka v Zakarpatye [Sokyrnitsa 1 – the new stratified Palaeolithic site in Transcarpathia]. Carpatica 13, 13-21 (in Russian).
32. Usik, V., Koulakovska, L., Monigal, K., Gerasimenko, N., Kovalukh, N., 2003-2004. The investigations of the Sokyrnitsa 1 and Shayan 1 Paleolithic sites (Transcarpathia, Ukraine). Archaeology and dates: 2003 excavation season. Praehistoria 4-5, 179-194.
33. Usik,V., Monigal,K., Kulakovskaya, L., 2006. New Perspectives on the Transcarpathian Middle to Upper Paleolithic l Boundary. In N.J. Conard (Eds.) When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met. Tubingen, 213-232.
34.Veklitch, M.F. (Ed.), 1993. Stratigraficheskaya schema pleistotsenovyh otlozheniy Ukrainy [Stratigraphical framework of the Pleistocene deposits of Ukraine]. Goskom geologii Ukrainy, Kiev (in Russian).
35. Veklitch, M.F., Matviishina, Zh.N., Medvedev, V.V., Sirenko, N.A., Fedorov, K.N., 1979. Metodika paleopedologicheskih issledovaniy. Naukova dumka, Kiev (in Russian).
36. Woillard, G., 1978. Grand Pile pit bog: a continuous pollen record for the last 140,000 years. Quaternary Research 12, 152-155.
37. Yamada, M., Ryzhov, S. (Eds.), 2015. Archaeology and Geology of Ukraine in Regional Context. Meiji University – Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Tokyo – Kyiv.
38. Yurchenko. T.I., 2017. Vegetational evolution in the Transcarpathian lowland (Ukraine) during the middle pleniglacial (pollen study of the Beregove I site). Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary 30 (1), 41-49.
Published
2019-07-03