The chemical composition of precipitation in Ukraine and its potential impact on the environment and water bodies


Keywords: atmospheric precipitation, chemical composition, anthropogenic component, environment, water bodies, Ukraine

Abstract

This article provides characteristic of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation on the territory of Ukraine and its potential impact on the environment and water bodies. In Ukraine, the rainfall is 650 mm/year in the northwest of the country (mixed forests), up to 300 mm/year in the south (steppe zone), in the Ukrainian Carpathians - up to 1,600 mm/year. Acidity of atmospheric precipitation (pH) on the territory of Ukraine according to monitoring meteorological stations is 5.9-6.3. Minimum values of mineralization of atmospheric precipitation are observed in a zone of mixed forests in the north of the country. In particular, according to the weather station of Teteriv, the mineralization of atmospheric precipitation is 27.0 mg/l. In forest-steppe and steppe zones, this rate gradually increases to 35-45 mg/l, reaching a maximum in the steppe zone at the Askania-Nova meteorological station (82.4 mg/l). In the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation, anion predominates sulfates, and among cations - magnesium. Anthropogenic component of the total mineralization of atmospheric precipitation, calculated for the first time on the territory of Ukraine (meteorological station Kobelyaki) by comparison with the regional natural background, is 69%. Concentration of sulfate ions (8-24 mg/l) in atmospheric precipitation on the territory of Ukraine shows a high level of pollution with sulfur, which corresponds to IV-V levels o environmental pollution. It is noted that with increasing concentrations of sulfates in atmospheric precipitation a tendency towards a decrease in the pH in the water of Svityaz Lake is projected. Current research shows that at high concentrations of sulfates in atmospheric precipitation, the risk of falling individual rains with low pH (so-called acid rains) increases. Waters of high concentration of organic matter and low mineralization of water are widely distributed on the territory of Ukraine (catchments of Polissya and the Carpathian region): up to 100 mg/l in the meadows and up to 30 mg/l in the flood period. Often, the pH of water in them is 6-6.5 and precipitation of acidic precipitation can significantly affect their hydroecological state. The obtained results on the influence of chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation on water objects have a diagnostic character. For more specific results, special synchronized studies of the chemical composition of the water of experimental water reservoirs with sampling ofatmospheric precipitation are required.

Author Biographies

V. K. Khilchevskyi
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
S. M. Kurylo
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
N. P. Sherstyuk
Oles Gonchar Dnipro National University
M. R. Zabokrytska
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University

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Published
2019-04-19