Ecological and economic basis of anti-erosion stability of forest-agrarian landscapes


Keywords: rational environmental use, forest-agro landscape, forest ameliorative stands, erosion, soils

Abstract

The ecological and economic foundations of rational nature management in restoring various kinds of protective forest stands under conditions of severe damage and destruction of wood-shrubby species in the natural-climatic and economic zones of the country were developed. It was determined that using traditional methods of restoration of protective forest plantations in many cases is no longer acceptable due to different levels of damage and substantial changes to economic entities on Earth. However, the main methodological approaches remain. A new methodological approach to restoring forests on the basis of constant adaptation of the existing methodologies for the design and calculation of economic efficiency of new plantings and new ecological-economic conditions and peculiarities has been developed. Certainly ,numerousincorrectly planned forest stands have been created that do not sufficiently fulfill their ecological and economic functions and do not even have a general system of protection of the soil from negative factors. For effective regeneration of plants we have developed a formula for calculating the erosion stability of forest-agrarian landscapes for their optimal recovery through forest shelterbelts. We have developed new features of design and calculation of ecological and economic efficiency of newly created forest ameliorative spaces with new natural-economic conditions for their sustainable regeneration under modern conditions. The transition to environmentally sustainable agriculture of European standards requires fundamentally new solutions to the problem of using forest stands as an organizational component of ameliorative complexes in the context of soil erosion control measures. Soil erosion is one of the main factors of anthropogenic impact on land resources. Intensification of erosion processes leads to substantial degradation of soils, causing great losses to agriculture and generally endangers the safe development of mankind. As long as the process of degradation of the soil continues , the agroecological condition deteriorates and the increased application of mineral and organic fertilizers fails to improve the crop volume , insofar as the crop yield is formed mainly due to the natural soil fertility. In the process of research, we discovered that the expansion of the front intake surface runoff in forestry plantings allows one to increase their effective water-regulative functions. Such an event has a certain practical value, because a large proportion of forest shelterbelts even in satisfactory condition only perform their functionsat 20-30%. Taking into account the indicators of ameliorative-hydrological stress and counter-erosion stability of landscapes in locations of planted forest stands proved to be the most effective method of strengthening the initial contact with runoff ("active") plots .This provides is a unique chance to optimize the ecological economic system of protective forest plantations , especially in newly formed agricultural enterprises under new economic conditions.

Author Biographies

І. V. Koshkalda
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchayev
V. V. Tyshkovets
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchayev
A. A. Suska
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchayev

References

1. Achtyamov A.G., Vavin V.S., Tunyakin V.D. 2016. Protective plantings on arable land and problems of their maintenance.International Research Journal. Ekaterinburg, № 11(53), pp. 10-13. (in Russian).
2. Bodrov V.А., 1974. Field protective afforestation: Тheoretical fundamentals. Кyiv: Urozhaj, 200 p. (in Ukrainian).
3. Cheverdin Yu.I., Vavin V.S., Ahtyamov A.G. 2016. Features of formation of the water regime of chernozems under old-growth forest strips.International research journal. Ekaterinburg, № 11(53), pp. 55-57. (in Russian).
4. Каlinin М.I., 1982. Forest ameliorations under erosion relief. L’viv: Vyshchashkola, 279 p. (in Ukrainian).
5. Pavlovsky E.S., 1986. Protective forest cultivation in USSR.Мoscow: Agropromizdat, 280 p.(in Russian).
6. Pylypenko О.І., 1994. Optimization of zonal forest-agro ecological systems. Кyiv: Forest journal, pp. 11-12. (in Ukrainian).
7. Sobolev S.S., 1973. Soil erosion in USSR and protection from it. Мoscow.: MLTI Publishing, 98 p. (in Russian).
8. Sharapova S.V., Legal provision of protection of lands for forestry purposes. Problems of legality. 2017. Issue 139. Р.155-163. (in Ukrainian).
9. Braude I.D, 1959. Amelioration and development of beams and sharp slopes. Мoscow: Selhozgiz, 283 p. (in Russian).
10. Production of main agricultural crops in the year 2017. [Electronicresource]. -Access mode: http://kh.ukrstat.gov.ua/index.php/vyrobnytstvoosnovnykh silskohospodarskykh-kultur (in Ukrainian).
Published
2019-01-08