Geological and structural prerequisites of gas-bearing capacity and gas hydrate formation in the World Ocean (in terms of the Black Sea)


Keywords: the Black Sea, the World Ocean, gas hydrate, methane, bottom sediments

Abstract

Gas hydrates occurring in the World Ocean are considered as the additional and perspective non-traditional resource of hydrocarbon materials. The proposed classification of deposits as for mining and geological conditions of their occurrence as well as methodological approach to their development and calculation of technological parameters of methane extraction from the World Ocean floor with minimum impact upon the Earth’s hydrosphere is of considerable importance in the context of current studies of new and most prospective source of energy in terms of the available experience gap as for the development of gas hydrate deposits. The approach to search for and explore gas hydrate deposits occurring on and under the World Ocean floor has been suggested; the approach is based upon the regularities of gas hydrate distribution in lithological varieties and geological structures. The necessity to take into consideration the pore space enclosing gas hydrate thicknesses to calculate their reserves has been substantiated. The overview of scientific literature sources summarizingthe results of marine expeditions as well as the analysis of publications of world scientific community dealing with the studies of gas hydrates has made it possible to determine that gas hydrate deposits are associated to the zones of jointing of continental plates and oceanic troughs. In their turn, those zones, due to different genesis, are made up of the corresponding various products of sedimentary rock accumulations. Detailed analysis of the Black Sea floor structure has been performed. Three geomorphological zones have been singled out; basic types of gas-bearing capacity manifestation and methane liberation from the interior have been represented. Quantitative evaluation of methane content in gas hydrate deposits has been given taking into account the detected ones. Data concerning gas-bearing capacity of the Black Sea floor proved by the map of mud volcanoes location within the areas of gas hydrate sampling have been considered. That was the basis to analyze peculiarities of the formation of bottom-sediment gas hydrates basing upon genetic origin of lithological composition of their enclosing rocks and their structures in terms of the Black Sea floor. Relation between the features of the World Ocean floor structure and the distribution of gas hydrate deposits has been determined. Theoretical approach to search for and explore gas hydrate deposits both in the Black Sea and in the World Ocean has been developed and proposed. Interaction between different zones of the World Ocean floor and types of gas hydrate deposits based upon the compositions of their enclosing rock has been shown. Lithological composition of the rocks enclosing gas hydrates has been analyzedin detail. That will make it possible to determine the type of any specific deposit and elaborate technological scheme to open and develop methane-containing gas hydrate deposits.

Author Biographies

E. Maksymova
National Mining University
S. Kostrytska
National Mining University

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Published
2018-11-02
How to Cite
Maksymova, E., & Kostrytska, S. (2018). Geological and structural prerequisites of gas-bearing capacity and gas hydrate formation in the World Ocean (in terms of the Black Sea). Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 27(2), 294-304. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/111853