Influence of technogenic loading of pyrogenic origin on the geochemical migration of heavy metals


Keywords: natural fires, migratory properties of chemical elements

Abstract

The study of geochemical aspects of the transformation of migration properties of heavy metals under the influence of anthropogenic loading of pyrogenic origin has been given insufficient attention. We studied the concentration of heavy metals in soils by atomic absorption analysis. The results indicate the transformation of their migration properties. The diversity and versatility of behaviour of chemical elements in environmental components after fire was noted. In different ecological conditions, it is possible to observe a wide range of quantitative values of geochemical migration or accumulation of any particular chemical element. The analytical results show that the contents of migrant elements, pH values, areas of disasters which are approximately in the same conditions, but passed by the grass or upper fire differ quite tangibly. Heavy metals that hit the environment can form difficult soluble hydroxides. In addition, in the soil solution, there is a probability of the formation of hydroxocomplexes with different amounts of hydroxide ions by metals. The range of precipitation of hydroxides and the region of predominance of soluble hydroxocomplexes have been studied by constructing concentration-logarithmicdiagrams. On the basis of the calculations it can be argued that the influence of technogenic loading of pyrogenic origin influences the geochemical migration of heavy metals . Compounds Fe3+ at the pH = 4.5-14, Cu2+ at pH = 7-14, Cr2+ at pH = 7-9, Zn2+ at pH= 8-11, Ni2+ at pH = 8-14 have the lowest migration potential. Compounds Pb2+ at pH = 9-12, Fe2+ - pH = 9.5-14 have the lowest migration potential also. In a more acidic environment, soluble substances are formed, but at a pH increase of only 0.5-1, they can decrease their mobility by an order of magnitude which contributes to their concentration in the soils after the fire. In a neutral soil reaction, most of the heavy metals (Al, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe (II), Ni) are in a slightly soluble form (in the form of hydroxides), with insignificant, migration capacity which leads to the accumulation of these chemical elements in the soil. It is necessary to allocate heavy metals moving in a neutral environment (Fe (II), Cd, Co, Mg, Mn) into a separate group. Any increase in pH values contributes to their fixation. The obtained calculations can be used to predict the geochemical migration of heavy metals in soils which result from anthropogenic disasters of a pyrogenic origin.

Author Biographies

Y. Buts
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics
V. Asotskyi
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine
O. Kraynyuk
Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University
R. Ponomarenko
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine

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Published
2018-07-10
How to Cite
Buts, Y., Asotskyi, V., Kraynyuk, O., & Ponomarenko, R. (2018). Influence of technogenic loading of pyrogenic origin on the geochemical migration of heavy metals. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 27(1), 43-50. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/111829