Estimation of activity the methane seepage from the Black Sea floor using MODIS images and geosciences data


  • T. A. Melnichenko
Keywords: gas seepage (methane), tectonics, Black Sea, MODIS satellite images, remote research

Abstract

The publication presents the results of a certain stage of the study: the features of methane gas seepage characteristics in the transition zone of shelf-continental slope in the region of the Dnieper Paleodelts in the northwestern part of the Black Sea are identified, taking into account the data set: information of satellite images and of geological-geophysical (acoustic) data. About 2000 of the MODIS satellite images (product MOD021KM) are acquired in stages over one year period. The image processing was carried out in the GIS environment. It was established that the volume of methane gas seepage on the investigated site is fixed on satellite images and is most pronounced during increased seismotectonic activity (activation of earthquakes in the Black Sea region) - this is due to the tectonic structure of the study area, which is in the regional plan on the edge of the Eastern European platform, and in the local area, is the Dnepr paleo-delta in the zone of decomposition, which is an additional factor for gas outlets here. On satellite images small clouds are observed in cloudy weather or absence of clouds on the background of continuous clouds. This is due to the physical properties of methane, which is (according to geochemical studies) about 99% of the released gas. Methane rising from the bottom of the sea to the surface, and then to the troposphere is much colder than the surface water and warmer than the atmosphere layer, which provokes the formation of condensate over the site with methane gas seepage, and when the weather conditions change, forming a rainy cloud with a sharp drop in temperature, the volume of methane gas of seepage up are much warmer than clouds, forming a cloudy area on a background of continuous clouds. This phenomenon is recorded in various spectral (thermal and infrared) bands in satellite images (NASA – MODIS, NOAA, etc.), methane rising to the lower layers of the atmosphere intensively absorbs thermal radiation of the Earth in the infrared spectral region at a wavelength of 7.66 µm. It enables to determine the methane gas seepage in satellite images for future studies of gas outlets from the bottom of the sea, taking into account the geological information and additional hydrological  and weather data. The conducted monitoring of the satellite images showed that during the period of increased seismic activity in this region (in particular under the influence of the zone Vranch), it directly affects the tectonic situation in the northwestern part of the Black Sea and increases the emissions of methane gases from the bottom of the sea, which are then recorded on the MODIS sensor. 

Author Biography

T. A. Melnichenko
State institution "Scientific centre for aerospace research of the Earth Institute of geological science National academy of sciences of Ukraine"

References

1. Atmosfera Zemli. [Earth's atmosphere.] 2017. Retrevied from: https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90 %D1%82%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%81%D1% 84%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0_%D0%97%D 0%B5%D0%BC%D0%BB%D1%96. (In Ukrainian).
2. Bashin N.M. 2010. Metan v okruzhajushhej srede. [Methane in the environment]. series: ecology. Vol. 93. Publishing Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 56 p. (in Russian).
3. Egorov V.N., Artemov Y.G., Gulin S.B. 2011. Ed. by G.G. Polikarpov. Metanovye sipy v Chernom more: sredoobrazujushhaja i jekologicheskaja rol'. [Methane seeps in the Black Sea: Environment-forming and ecological role]. Sevastopol: ECOSEAHydrophysics, 405p. (in Russian).
4. Geografichni ta gidrografichni peredumovi vitchiznyanogo sudnoplavstva. [Geographical and hydrographic background of domestic shipping.] 2016. Retrevied from: https://sites.google.com/site/istoriasudnoplavstvaukraieni/castina-1-doslov-anskij-period/geograficni-ta-gidrograficni-peredumovivitciznanogo-sudnoplavstva. (in Ukrainian).
5. Fleischer P., Orsi T.H., Richardson M.D., Anderson A.L. 2001. Distribution of free gas in marine sediments: a global overview. Geo-Marine Letters Vol. 21, 103-122. DOI 10.1007/s003670100072.
6. Koji Yamamoto, 2015. Overview and introduction: Pressure core-sampling and analyses in the 20122013 MH21 offshore test of gas production from methane hydrates in the eastern Nankai Trough. Marine and Petroleum Geology Vol. 66, 296 – 309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.02.024.
7. Karta glubin Chernogo morya. [Map of the Black Sea Depths.] 2008. Retrevied from: http://akvatoria.org.ua/sites/default/files/Black_Sea_map.jpg. (in Russian).
8. Lejn A.Ju., Ivanov M.V. 2005. Krupnejshij na Zemle metanovyj vodoem. [The largest methane reservoir in the world]. Priroda Vol. 2. P. 18 – 26. (in Russian).
9. Lyalko V.I. and M. O. Popov (Eds), 2017. Suchasni metodi distancijnogo poshuku korisnih kopalin. [Novel remote sensing methods for minerals prospecting]. p.219. (CD-ROM); ISBN 978-966-028295-7. (in Ukrainian).
10. Melnichenko T.A., 2015. Kompleksuvannja lіtologіchnoї і tektonіchnoї іnformacії pri rozv’jazannі zadach naftogazoposhukovih problemin. [Integrasion of litological and tectonic information for the decision of tasks of searching problems on an oil and gas]. Collection of scientific works of the IGS NAS of Ukraine, Vol. 8. P. 190-197. (in Ukrainian).
11. Melnichenko T.A., Vorobiev А.I., Geykman A.M., 2016. Vpliv geotektonіchnoї aktivnostі na obsjagi gazovih vidіlen' u pіvnіchnіj chastinі Chornogo morja. Influence of the geotectonic activity on volumes of gas seeps in the north part of the Black Sea. Dopov. Nac. akad. nauk Ukr., Vol. 3, P.55 – 60. (in Ukrainian).
12. Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. 2018. Retrevied from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moderate-resolution_imaging_spectroradiometer.
13. Naudts Lieven, Greinert Jens, ArtemovYuriy, Staelens Peter, Poort Jeffrey, Pieter Van Rensbergen, Marc De Batist. 2006. Geological and morphological setting of 2778 methane seeps in the Dnepr paleo-delta, northwestern Black Sea. Marine Geology Vol. 227, Issues 3–4, 177 – 199. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.10.005.
14. Popescu Irina, Lericolais Gilles, Panin Nicolae, Marc De Batist, Hervé Gillet. 2007. Seismic expression of gas and gas hydrates across the western Black Sea. Geo-Marine Letters. Vol. 27, № 2-4, 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00367-007-0068-0.
15. Shnyukov E.F., Stupina L.V., Rybak Ye.N. at all, 2015. Grjazevye vulkany Chernogo morja (katalog). [Mud volcanoes of the Black Sea (catalog)], Logos, p.259 (in Russian).
16. Shnyukov E.F. (Edit.), 2014. Geologo-okeanicheskie issledovanija v Chernom more. [Geological and oceanic research in the Black Sea]. Logos, p.134 (in Russian).
17. Tetsuya Fujii, Kiyofumi Suzuki, Tokujiro Takayama, Machiko Tamaki, Yuhei Komatsu, Yoshihiro Konno, Jun Yoneda, Koji Yamamoto, Jiro Nagao. 2015. Geological setting and characterization of a methane hydrate reservoir distributed at the first offshore production test site on the Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Marine and Petroleum Geology, Vol. 66, P. 310 – 322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.02.037
18. Tolkachev V.M., 2014. Resursy i ugrozy Chernogo morja. [Black Sea: Resources and Threats]. Environmental risks. Industrial Safety. Vol. 8, P. 46 – 52. (in Russian).
19. Ukrgazvidobuvannya hoche pochati vidobutok gazu na shelfi Chornogo morya.[ Ukrgasproduction wants to start gas extraction on the Black Sea shelf.] 2017. Retrevied from: https://economics.unian.ua/energetics/2171371ukrgazvidobuvannya-hoche-pochati-vidobutokgazu-na-shelfi-chornogo-morya.html (In Ukrainian).
20. Vorobiev А.I., Melnichenko T.A. 2016. Analіz geologіchnoї prirodi makroprosochuvan' metanu u pіvnіchno-zahіdnіj chastinі Chornogo morja ta їh projavi na suputnikovih znіmkah. [The analysis of methane macroleakages geological nature in the northwest Black sea and their displays on satellite images]. Ukrainian journal of remote sensing, Vol. 10, 10 – 16, (in Ukrainian).
Published
2018-03-30
How to Cite
Melnichenko, T. (2018). Estimation of activity the methane seepage from the Black Sea floor using MODIS images and geosciences data. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 26(1), 135-142. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/111814